Forces of Nature: Physical Processes and Disasters: CGF3M (Grade 11, University/College Preparation)

Semester 2
Issues in Canadian Geography, Grade 9, Academic or Applied
Credit Value
Required Text
  • None

In this course, students will explore physical processes related to the earth’s water, land, and air. They will investigate how these processes shape the planet’s natural characteristics and affect human systems, how they are involved in the creation of natural disasters, and how they influence the impacts of human disasters. Throughout the course, students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process and use spatial technologies to analyse these processes, make predictions related to natural disasters, and assess ways of responding to them.

Units and Activities

Unit 1

The study of geography requires a particular set of skills. Geographers use the geographic inquiry model to conduct investigations and employ the concepts of geographic thinking to understand data and information. Unit 1 teaches the skills that all geographers use with a focus on natural hazards.


  • Activity 1: Spatial Significance
  • Activity 2: Patterns and Trends
  • Activity 3: Interrelationships
  • Activity 4: Geographic Perspectives
  • Activity 5: Culminating Activity Part 1

Unit 2

The earth is a dynamic system where natural processes continuously shape the landscape. Processes act on the landscape creating the conditions for natural hazards to occur. Unit 2 explores how, why and where natural disasters strike.


  • Activity 1: Geologic Processes: Earthquakes and Volcanoes
  • Activity 2: Geologic Processes: Tsunamis
  • Activity 3: Hydrologic Processes: Flooding
  • Activity 4: Hydrologic Processes: Avalanches
  • Activity 5: Climatic Processes: Tornadoes
  • Activity 6: Climatic Processes: Hurricanes
  • Activity 7: Culminating Activity Part 2

Unit 3

Human activity has tremendous impacts on the earth, its landscapes and its natural processes. Unit 3 explores how human use of the natural landscape can increase the risk of natural hazards.


  • Activity 1: What Does it Take to Protect the Earth?
  • Activity 2: Does Fracking Cause Microquakes?
  • Activity 3: Flooding: For Better and Worse?
  • Activity 4: The Frank Slide: The Story of Turtle Mountain
  • Activity 5: Culminating Activity Part 3

Unit 4

The world is more connected now than it has ever been. When natural hazards become natural disasters there is often a global response and global effects. Unit 4 explores the global impact of natural hazards.


  • Activity 1: Is Climate Change Making Hurricanes More Powerful and Frequent?
  • Activity 2: How Did Natural Processes Worsen the Fukushima Disaster?
  • Activity 3: Changing Coastlines: The Impact of Sea Level Rise
  • Activity 4: How Do Extraterrestrial Forces Impact Earth?
  • Activity 5: Culminating Activity Part 4

Unit 5

Humans work together to limit the impact of natural hazards, hoping to avoid natural disasters. Unit 5 explores the creative ways in which people around the world have learned to live and prosper in areas where natural hazards can easily become natural disasters.


  • Activity 1: How to Actively Control Hazards
  • Activity 2: How Scientists Monitor Natural Hazards
  • Activity 3: How We Prepare For Disasters
  • Activity 4: How Does The Earth Change Over Geologic Time?
  • Activity 5: Culminating Activity Part 5

Unit 6

The final unit will have you prepare and submit the good copy of your culminating risk assessment. You will focus on addressing weaknesses and ensuring that it your best work.


  • Activity 1: Bringing Your Risk Assessment Together